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  • Varna in 19th and 20th centuries
    Varna in 19th and 20th centuries Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/xix_xx_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The chalcolithic necropolis
    The chalcolithic necropolis Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/necropolis_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The Roman Thermae
    entrances can be found on the northern side of the thermae Wide stairs lead to the lobbies with the purpose of preventing the cold air from the dressing rooms The dressing rooms apoditeria on the other hand were large enough to fit all visitors and provide comfort This is where the slaves would stay and keep the clothes and jewels while the citizens of Odessos enjoy the baths The highest preserved part of the thermae the Roman tower was one of the walls of the western apoditeria The first phase of the bath procedure was the so called short bath the visitors went through the frigidarium hall with cold baths tepidarium warm bath and eventually got ready for the main hot bath in the caldarium It includes one spacious pool and two smaller along the walls all three of them receiving water from the boiler halls Those citizens who were willing to enjoy the full program continued to the actual tepidarium and eventually in the actual frigidarium In this way the body was refreshed and prepared to go back to the cold baths halls All halls were located so that the simultaneous enjoying of the baths by men and women would be prevented In order to perform their functions the baths are equipped with the necessary devices and rooms In the southern part was located the prefurnium that is where the water and air for the baths were heated up The warm rooms are featured for their double floor The upper surface is constructed upon vertical columns The hot air circulates between them and warms up the floor The rooms are heated in the same way from the air transmitted between the walls and the marble surface Along the east and west walls we can find the passages used as

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/roman_thermae_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The fortress of Odessos and Varna
    describe the castle citadel tower of Varna The fortress was greatly developed and taken care of in the end of Turkish rule further descriptions and plans also being preserved from this period How did the fortress of Varna look through the ages The Antique Fortress The scarce archaeological works in the nowadays densely populated region of old Varna can partly define the location of the Roman fortress Some preserved fragments were also discovered along Primorski Blvd across from the Aquarium Mihail Koloni Street next to the St Nicholas church close to the spot of Happy now to a popular restaurant in downtown Varna next to the Navy headquarters etc and continuing further along the coastline Later on a part of the fortress falls apart and as the Shkorpil brothers inform the remnants could still be seen under the water level With the construction of the breakwater the formed sand beach slowly destroyed the steep coast The base of the walls around 3 m under its contemporary level was formed from small stones and the upper part was constructed from larger stone blocks tightly aligned Their height rises up to 8 m and in width they vary from 1 to 3 5 m in the vulnerable parts It is supposed that along the top of the fortress were located the weapon turrets and a corridor where the soldiers would walk Only the quadrangular turrets were less on certain strategic locations higher and slightly forward The only hexagonal turrets were around the gates We suppose that in the town centre in the area of the Roman thermae there was an acropolis even though no archaeological works prove it The streets plan in old Odessos is not known either As in every other antic town two main streets crossed it They followed the four directions of the world and were called Dekumanus maximus and Cardo maximus and the parallel streets formed the different neighborhoods At the crossing point of the two major streets was the town plaza The Forum The time of last existence of the Roman fortress is not agreed upon Their recorded usage dates back to 6th century but according to various researchers they were more or less utilized until 10th 14th or 15th century The Fortress during the Middle Ages During the Middle Ages the fortress and the town were much smaller compared to the antiquity Even though no proofs tell us about its exact location and period of existence some written sources can be helpful In the beginning of the 20th century the Shkorpil brothers assume that the fortress had been utilized in the Middle Ages However the feudal abilities were limited and the construction and maintenance of big fortresses impossible Later records describe smaller dimensions of the fortress and also its antic origin These descriptions lead to the conclusion that the Roman fort walls were in use until 10th and 11th centuries and then abandoned and the new fortress that takes their place was being equalized with the

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/castles_past_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The sea baths
    The sea baths Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/sea_baths_past_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The stone bridge
    The old stone bridge Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/asparuhovo_bridge_past_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The pier
    The pier the olp port Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/port_past_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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  • The lighthouses
    The lighthouses Should any navigation problems arise click titles from this location

    Original URL path: http://varna.info.bg/english/lighthouses_past_en.htm (2015-11-27)
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